Food is any material consumed to supply nutrition to the organisms. Food is generally of animal, plant or fungi origin, and includes essential nutrients, including vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, and minerals. It is the primary source of energy in the human body and is often used as a sole source of nourishment or a major component of a balanced diet. The energy derived from food can be classified into two forms: food energy that are present in the form of heat and food energy that are not immediately available but must be consumed within a few moments due to its physical nature.
Vitamins and minerals are considered to be important nutrients when absorbed through the digestive tract. In most cases, food is the only source of these nutrients, and consequently, the dietary consumption of vitamins and minerals is extremely important. Vitamins, especially B vitamins, are water-soluble and hence must be consumed immediately after they are consumed. In contrast, minerals, like calcium and iron, are fat soluble, so they are easily stored in fat reserves. Both vitamins and minerals are grouped according to their required amounts in foods according to the Food Pyramid, which is a chart developed by the government to help people better understand their nutritional requirements.
There are two groups of vitamins: fat soluble and water soluble. Fat soluble vitamins are needed to maintain normal body functions, like maintaining blood sugar levels and heart rate; while water-soluble vitamins like vitamin A, B2, C, D, E, K, and Omega 3 fatty acids are needed to promote health and prevent chronic diseases. Common fats that are recommended to eat include sunflower oil, olive oil, safflower oil, canola oil, and margarine. These fats have varying levels of saturated and trans fats that vary with the amount of fats present and the quality of the meat. Other fats are not good for our health and are included in two groups: mono and polyunsaturated fats.